Xcitex, Ripple, U Mizz Voice, Swallow and Airway Center, NFODS; Vicon
Feeding behavior is one of the most critical behaviors, not simply because we need to eat nutrition to survive and develop, but also because eating heavily affects quality of life. Feeding can be characterized as a sequence of cycle types and their seamless transitions; ingestion, transport, rhythmic chew, and swallow. In each cycle type, the orofacial apparatus needs to achieve precisely coordinated movements with minimal failure. Swallowing, in particular, is a very complex sensorimotor action involving many brain regions, despite its apparent simplistic reflex behavior. A large population worldwide experiences feeding deficits, especially swallowing impairments (dysphagia), that are accompanied by major neurological disorders such as stroke, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), and Parkinson’s disease (PD). Dysphagia can lead to serious complications such as dehydration, malnutrition, aspiration pneumonia, and choking, all of which can lead to death. Recently, the neural mechanism of feeding regulation has been under the spotlight in neuroscience. However, despite the long history of research, the basic motor control of orofacial and pharyngeal functions has not been well studied. Thus it is critical to examine underlying neural circuitries and to identify therapeutic targets. This satellite will feature our current understanding of the neural mechanisms of feeding and swallowing in human and animals along with research on rehabilitation/assistive methodology for behavioral and neural recovery. We will have three sessions: (1) Feeding, (2) Swallowing, and (3) Intersection of Feeding and Swallowing. (1) The Feeding session chaired by Prof. German will feature the role of the sensorimotor cortex in chewing, swallowing, and related sensorimotor functions (Prof. Sessle), neuronal circuit of premotor neurons for bilateral coordination of jaw and tongue muscles (Prof. T. Inoue), importance of information processes at both cortical and subcortical regions on the sensory information such as texture, taste, as well muscle spindle and periodontal mechanoreceptors (Prof. Soros), and spectral changes in cortical oscillation and in topology of motor cortical circuits at different stages of feeding sequence (Prof. Takahashi). (2) The Swallowing session chaired by Prof. Lever will feature how sensory inputs are utilized at the level of brainstem and the cortex (Prof. Ludlow), the use of imaging techniques on the neural control of swallowing in normal subjects and patients with dysphagia (Prof. Malandraki), evidence from neurotoxin and transgenic rodent models for PD suggesting that dysphagia is related to multiple brain pathologies (Prof. Ciucci), and development of dysphagia rehabilitation devices and their assistive performance (Prof. M. Inoue). (3) The Intersection of Feeding and Swallowing session chaired by Prof. Plowman will feature how heightening or dampening the role of oral processing during feeding impacts the kinematics of swallowing in healthy adults (Prof. Humbert), and the integrated view of the whole feeding sequence particularly the transition from transport to swallow involving a coordination of musculoskeletal elements, sensory input to and motor signal from cranial nerves and brainstem (Prof. German). See website.